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What is Chloroquine? And could it heal the Coronavirus ?
Chloroquine is an antimalarial medicine that was discovered in 1934 by Hans Anderson. It is on the WHO or World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines. It is available as a generic medication. Chloroquine is a member of the class of drugs called 4-aminoquinoline. As an antimalarial, Chloroquine works against the asexual form of the malaria parasite in the stage of its life cycle within the red blood cell.
Chloroquine is mainly used to prevent and treat malaria in areas where malaria remains sensitive to its effects. Chloroquine is occasionally used for amebiasis occurring outside rheumatoid arthritis, intestines, and lupus erythematosus. Chloroquine appears safe during pregnancy. It is taken by mouth. Buy Chloroquine online from our website to prevent the occurrence of malaria.
Chloroquine comes in tablet form as the sulfate, phosphate, and hydrochloride salts. Chloroquine is commonly dispensed as phosphate. Brand names of Chloroquine include Chloroquine FNA, Dawaquin, Resochin, and Largo. Buy Chloroquine online without a prescription from our site. We hope you have an effortless shopping experience.
What are the medical uses of Chloroquine?
People use Chloroquine to treat and prevent malaria. Chloroquine is also used to treat liver infections caused by protozoa (extraintestinal amebiasis). Chloroquine may also be used to treat coronavirus (COVID-19) in certain hospitalized patients. Buy Chloroquine online through overnight delivery from us to protect yourself from the mentioned illnesses.
Chloroquine has been used to prevent and treat malaria from P. malariae, Plasmodium vivax, and P. ovale. It is generally not used in the case of Plasmodium falciparum as there is widespread resistance to it.
This medication has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which might have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance with Chloroquine. It is recommended to see if Chloroquine is still effective in the region before using the drug.
Patients can use Chloroquine with other medications or alone to treat amoebic liver abscesses.
For Rheumatic Disease:
As it mildly suppresses the body’s immune system, Chloroquine is used in some autoimmune disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis and has an off-label indication for lupus erythematosus.
How should I take Chloroquine after buying it online?
Order Chloroquine online from our trusted online pharmacy store. Take Chloroquine with food. Swallow the tablets with a drink of water. If you take a medicine for indigestion (such as an antacid), do not take it within two hours before or after taking Chloroquine.
Chloroquine works best when you take it on a regular schedule. Suppose you are taking it once a week to prevent malaria. It is best to take it on the same day of each week. Ensure that you don’t miss any doses of Chloroquine. If you have any questions regarding this, check with your doctor.
What to avoid while taking Chloroquine?
Purchase Chloroquine online from us and contact us if you have any queries regarding your purchase. This medicine can cause blurred vision and may impair your reactions. Avoid driving or hazardous activity until you know how this medicine will affect you. Avoid taking an antacid or Kaopectate (kaolin-pectin) within 4 hours before or 4 hours after taking Chloroquine.
What is the mechanism of action of Chloroquine?
The primary action of this drug is to inhibit the formation of Hz or hemozoin from the heme released by the digestion of hemoglobin (Hb). Chloroquine concentrates in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite and interferes with essential processes. The free heme then lyses membranes and causes parasite death. Chloroquine resistance is due to a decreased chloroquine accumulation in the food vacuole.
To explain it further, Chloroquine enters the red blood cell or RBC by simple diffusion, inhibiting the parasite cell and digestive vacuole. It then becomes protonated (to CQ2+), as the digestive vacuole is acidic (pH 4.7); Chloroquine then can’t leave by diffusion. It caps hemozoin molecules that avoid further biocrystallization of heme, thus causing heme buildup.
Chloroquine binds to heme (FP) to form the FP-chloroquine complex; this complex is highly toxic to the cell and disrupts the membrane function. The toxic FP-chloroquine and FP action lead to cell lysis and ultimately parasite cell autodigestion. Parasites that don’t form hemozoin are therefore resistant to Chloroquine.
In other terms, Chloroquine kills by concentrating in the parasite’s food vacuole and preventing the formation of the nontoxic heme metabolite hemozoin by the parasite. The parasite then dies from the toxic by-products of its metabolism of hemoglobin.
Chloroquine has antiviral effects against some viruses. Chloroquine increases late endosomal and lysosomal pH, resulting in the impaired release of the virus from the lysosome or endosome because the release of the virus requires a low pH. Therefore, the virus cannot release its genetic material into the cell and replicate.
This drug also acts as a zinc ionophore that allows extracellular zinc to enter the cell and inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
Chloroquine inhibits thiamine uptake. Chloroquine acts specifically on the transporter SLC19A3.
Against rheumatoid arthritis, Chloroquine operates by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, phospholipase A2, antigen presentation in dendritic cells, enzymes from lysosomes, the release of reactive oxygen species from macrophages, and production of IL-1.
How long does Chloroquine stay in the body?
Chloroquine concentrations decline slowly, with an elimination half-life of 20-60 days. It can be detected in urine months after a single dose. If you must stop it, it will take a while for the side effects to disappear.
What are the side effects of using Chloroquine?
Common side effects include blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps, headache, diarrhea, swelling legs/ankles, shortness of breath, pale lips/nails/skin, muscle weakness, easy bruising/bleeding, and hearing loss, and mental problems.
Severe side effects include muscle damage, seizures, low blood cell levels, and also the following effects:
- Uncontrolled/unwanted movements (including tongue and face twitching), tinnitus, or deafness
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, or mental/mood changes (such as confusion, personality changes, unusual thoughts/behavior, depression, feeling being watched, hallucinating)
- Signs of severe infection (such as severe chills, high fever, persistent sore throat), skin itchiness, hair loss, skin color changes, and skin rashes
- Chloroquine-induced itching increases with age and is so severe as to stop compliance with drug therapy. It is increased during fever caused by malaria; its severity is correlated to the malaria parasite load in blood. Some research indicates it has a genetic basis and is linked to chloroquine action with opiate receptors peripherally or centrally.
- Unpleasant metallic taste could be avoided by “taste-masked and controlled release” formulations such as multiple emulsions.
- Chloroquine retinopathy
- Electrocardiographic changes- This manifests itself as either conduction disturbances (bundle-branch block, atrioventricular block) or Cardiomyopathy – often with hypertrophy, restrictive physiology, and congestive heart failure. The changes can be irreversible.
- Electron microscopy of cardiac biopsies shows pathognomonic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies.
- Pancytopenia, reversible agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, low blood platelets, or neutropenia
What other drugs interact with Chloroquine?
Chloroquine has several drug-drug interactions that might be of clinical concern. Following are some drug interactions with Chloroquine:
- Ampicillin- Chloroquine can reduce levels;
- Antacids- can reduce the absorption of Chloroquine;
- Cimetidine- can inhibit the metabolism of Chloroquine; increasing levels of Chloroquine in the body;
- Cyclosporine- Chloroquine can increase levels; and
- Mefloquine- can increase risk of convulsions.
What are the inactive and active ingredients of Chloroquine tablets?
Chloroquine, 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methyl butyl amino)-quinoline, is made by reacting 4,7-dichloro quinoline with 4-diethylamino-1-methyl butylamine at 180 °C.
Each Chloroquine tablet, for oral administration, contains 250 milligrams chloroquine phosphate (equivalent to 150 milligrams base) or 500 milligrams chloroquine phosphate (equivalent to 300 milligrams base). Inactive ingredients 250 milligrams: Calcium Stearate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Dibasic Calcium Phosphate, Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, and Talc.